Barnum effect

Also called the Forer-effect; describes the tendency of people to perceive general and vague statements as an accurate description of themselves.

Barnum statements

Statements that are general and vague and therefore apply to most people; e.g. B. “In some situations you are extraverted, in some situations you are more introverted.”

Behavior therapy

“Treatment based on the premise that behavior is learned and therefore can be unlearned through the use of classical and operant conditioning” (Gazzaniga et al., 2016, p. 658). Also see the entries for “classical conditioning” and “operant conditioning.”


a scientific explanation of actions, thoughts and feelings as behavior, without recourse to subjectivity; no difference is considered to exist between subjective and objective events

benevolent sexism

is “a set of interrelated attitudes toward women that are sexist in terms of viewing women stereotypically and in restricted roles but that are subjectively positive in feeling tone (for the perceiver) and also tend to elicit behaviors typically categorized as prosocial (e.g., helping) or intimacy-seeking (e.g., self-disclosure)” (Glick & Fiske, 1996, p.491); it is one of the dimensions of Ambivalent Sexism, the second dimension of Ambivalent Sexism is hostile sexism

biased lineup

when a lineup is constructed so that one individual (usually the suspect) stands out from the rest; if non-witnesses (people who did not witness the crime and have never seen the perpetrator) are shown the lineup and given the description of the perpetrator, a lineup biased towards the suspect will result in many of these non-witnesses accurately identifying the suspect

biological essentialism

is a belief that different races are distinct biological groups

body concern

a preoccupation with the subjective evaluation of one’s body 

body dissatisfaction

·      a negative subjective evaluation of one’s own body

body image

an individual’s subjective mental representation of his or her own body

building rapport

Establishing a relationship of cooperation and trust between people.

bystander effect

the general phenomenon in which the individual’s likelihood to help is decreased when there are more people around. People are less likely to provide help when there are more bystanders around


persons who are around, refers in this article to the number of people present in an emergency situation who are able to provide help