the study of the meaning of symbols within paintings; it also reconciles the symbols in paintings with their historical context

identification performance

the witness is confronted with several photos of possible perpetrators; their performance is judged on their ability to correctly identify the perpetrator and reject innocent persons

ideological schemas

are approaches falling on the liberal-conservative continuum, to understanding politically-relevant issues

ideology of naïve integration

espouses respect for diversity, however, continues to parallel dominant prejudices 

ideology of pluralism

reflects respect for cultural diversity and desires integration that allows people to maintain their unique subjectivities 

illusory control

or the illusion of control; the tendency to overestimate the extent to which people perceive to be in control over events; typical examples can be found within the contexts of chance-determined events such as gambling and superstitious beliefs


Image-based social media

social media platforms where users share information predominantly through photographs and other images    

implementation goals

sub-goals that specify how you are going to implement your goal; these should give you concrete instructions that help you reach your goal

implementation intentions

detailed behavioral plans which specify the when, where, and how of what one will do to reach a certain goal (Gollwitzer & Sheeran, 2006); normal intentions only specify what one intends to do, for instance, a normal intentions might be “I intend to eat less chocolate”, whereas an implementation intention is much more specific and may look like “If I order a dessert in the restaurant, then I will order a fruit salad (to reach my goal of eating less chocolate)!”

implicit processes

occur automatically, without effort, and without awareness


is a process by which impressionable young offspring are influenced by visual and auditory stimuli from a parent or foster parent, thereby determining the later behavior of the offspring


a group that provides individuals with a sense of belonging, a shared identity and community

refers to a person’s own group, which forms a part of her or his social identity

The group we belong to or identify with, as opposed to the relevant outgroup that we don’t belong to. For example, if I am from Northern Ireland and I am a Catholic, my ingroup is all Northern Irish Catholics and the corresponding outgroup is Northern Irish Protestants.

Synonyms: ingroup


if a person has an independent self-construal, they will seek to maintain their independence by focusing on and expressing their unique inner attributes, this mindset is common in American culture (Markus & Kitayama, 1991)


refers to a cultural worldview that encourages a focus on rights above duties, an emphasis on personal autonomy, uniqueness, self-reliance, and personal independence

a cultural orientation where people stress individual goals and desires, self-reliance, and self-realization, common in many Western cultures (Triandis, 1995)

Information-gathering approach

An approach to interviewing that is information, rather than confession, seeking. It relies on the following: establishing a relationship with the source (rapport), using open-ended questions with the primary intention to obtain truthful information, and uses cognitive cues rather than anxiety based cues for detecting deception. 

informational learning

“Refers to messages” that one “receives that either explicitly or implicitly convey a heightened sense of risk and threat” (Lebowitz et al., 2016).

ingroup and outgroup

social groups to which an individual feels that he or she belongs, or, in the case of outgroups, towards which an individual feels contempt, opposition, or a desire to compete

in social psychology research, in-group is the social group to which an individual feels as though he or she belongs as a member; out-group refers to the social group with which the individual does not identify and feels opposition, and a desire to compete

injunctive norms

Norms that convey which behaviours are morally right are injunctive or prescriptive (as opposed to descriptive norms, which describe what most people do). They describe how we ought to behave, rather than how we actually do.


a person with an interdependent self-construal will acknowledge and emphasize the fundamental relatedness of people, and will focus on harmony and fitting in with others, this mindset is common in many Asian cultures (Markus & Kitayama, 1991)

intergroup conflict

when groups interact in conflict. It is usually studied when it occurs between the ingroup and the outgroup

Intergroup Contact Hypothesis

proposed by Allport (1954) as an effective way to reduce prejudice between majority and minority members

internalization of the thin ideal

the extent to which an individual accepts socially defined ideals of attractiveness and/or thinness and applies these ideals to themselves; results because individuals internalize attitudes that are approved by significant or respected others (i.e., society)

Interpersonal factors

These are characteristics that influence how two people relate to one-another


an action performed to change the regular situation/ behavior most of the time in a study, but also refers to the act of helping


is a sense of friendship, largely powered by self disclosure; if you have this on its own, then you have a platonic friendship

intractable conflicts

are characterized as being total, protracted, violent, and perceived as being unsolvable and of zero-sum nature (see Bar-Tal, 2007)

intrinsic religiosity

the extent to which an individual has embraced his/her religious beliefs and endeavors to follow them fully


the act or process of self-examination, or inspection of one's own thoughts and feelings