observational learning

Learning “about an action’s consequences by watching others being rewarded or punished for performing the action” (Gazzaniga et al., 2016, p. 257). Also known as "modeling."

olfactory stimuli

stimuli related to the sense of smell

ontological categories

basic categories of being or existence which help define entities and types of entities within a certain framework


one of the Big Five personality factors, characterized at the one extreme by such traits as imagination, curiosity, and creativity, and at the other by shallowness and imperceptiveness

operant conditioning

A learning process in which the consequences [reward/punishment] of an action determine the likelihood that it will be performed in the future (Gazzaniga et al., 2016, p. 240).

ordinal linguistic personification

(OLP) a form of synaesthesia in which numbers, letters, days, months or other ordered sequences are assigned personalities

Synonyms: OLP

organizational citizenship behaviors

prosocial organizational behaviors that are not directly rewarded or part of an employee’s formal job description, but which do contribute to the well-being of the organization


refers to a group with which a person does not identify

The group we don’t belong to, as opposed to the ingroup that we do belong to. For example, if I am from Northern Ireland and I am a Catholic, my ingroup is Catholics and the corresponding outgroup is Protestants. For each of my ingroups, there are one or more outgroups. For example, for a Muslim ingroup, the outgroups might be Christians, Hindus, Sikhs, atheists, etc.

Synonyms: out-group


a mammalian hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland, which is located near the base of the brain. It is known for stimulating contractions of the uterus during labor and then the production of milk. Recently, studies have confirmed oxytocin’s role in pair bonding and maternal behaviors